A Leader of Lithium Lifepo4 Battery in China Since 2006

Crucial to find cobalt sources outside of Africa

by:GSL ENERGY     2020-06-13
With the integration of renewable energy and electric vehicles, we need to pay more attention to the diversity of the supply chain of cobalt and the supply of cobalt sources.
Cobalt plays an indispensable role in ordinary lithium
Ion batteries and batteries-
Power applications such as electric vehicles are becoming ubiquitous, and in order to avoid supply bottlenecks, cobalt mining will need to grow proportionally.
If we reach 24
By 2025, we will need cobalt supply for 7 million vehicles, with a compound annual growth rate of about 8% from 2020 to 2025.
If the demand is high, such as 63 up.
There will be 2 million vehicles by 2025, and it will take about 14% growth from 2020 to 2025.
This growth rate depends on the unstable supply chain.
The most important risk, perhaps the most difficult one to solve, is geopolitics. Sixty-
2% of the world\'s cobalt comes from Congo (Kim), plus production from Zambia, madagascar, South Africa and Zimbabwe, which mine more than 71% of the world\'s cobalt.
The company processes ore locally and exports more than 90% of the total to China for further processing and refining to produce commercial cobalt compounds used in batteries.
This exclusive trade between African countries and China has exposed China\'s market for regulatory volatility and export restrictions, a recent example is the rare earth market, after China issued export restrictions in 2010, there is a serious shortage in China.
Since then, state and private enterprises have had to adopt alternative resources and materials as well as storage.
Also, less cobalt
Intensive battery and alternative energy storage technologies will reduce the pressure on the cobalt supply chain.
Battery manufacturers should integrate with chemical manufacturers and enter the long term
Fixed-term contracts for hedging risks.
Mining companies need to develop resources in Australia, Canada and the United States. S.
Small fluctuations.
The second risk is that most of the cobalt produced is a by-product of copper or nickel.
This means that even if the economy of cobalt production is improving as demand grows, producers may not be able to expand cobalt production independently of primary metals.
Efforts to develop more independent resources are underway, but we need to invest more in improving processing efficiency, secondary recovery and recycling from old tailings.
The third risk is the time it takes to build a new mine.
A typical project may take seven years to go live.
Therefore, investors need at least a stable public policy for energy storage in electric vehicles and power grids to provide bank support for their resources.
More geological and drilling data should be published through state and federal geological agencies to reduce exploration risks and attract more capital.
The state can show
Value assessment of resources specifically for future natural resource development to streamline licensing procedures.
Finally, a large part of the cobalt production in the Congo is in violation of human rights and child labor laws, and a report by Amnesty 2016, which is why we die, is well documented.
Since this time last year, high demand expectations and unstable supply chains have pushed up the price of cobalt by 140%.
Continued price trends will challenge the expected decline in battery prices for electric vehicles and large electric vehicles
The size of the battery is largely dependent on the situation.
Another concern is whether there will be a new supply of cobalt.
Battery manufacturers in China
For increasingly important goods, the current situation of the supply chain is too risky.
The growing energy storage industry is an opportunity to develop the country\'s natural resources and chemical industries.
Policymakers, private enterprises and academic institutions must build a positive ecosystem, and it is time for action.
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