A Leader of Lithium Lifepo4 Battery in China Since 2006

This metal is powering today\'s technology—at what price?This metal is powering today\'s technology—at what price?

by:GSL ENERGY     2020-06-13
One Saturday morning, Bolivia\'s vice president, Alvaro Garcia linella, greeted me in a spacious salon outside his office, overlooking Murillo Square.
Gentle silverhaired 56-year-
In his country, the old politician is regarded as a loyal Marxist theorist.
But today he portrayed himself as a capitalist.
The promotion involved lithium.
Garcia Linera also talked about the natural resources of his country in a realistic and awe-inspiring manner.
Lithium critical to our batteries
The vice president assured me that the fuel world is also key to Bolivia\'s future.
In just four years, he predicts, it will be the engine of our economy.
He went on to say that all Bolivian people will benefit from lifting them out of poverty, securing the stability of the middle class and training them in the field of technology, make them part of the global economy.
But as the vice president knows, if the source of lithium is not addressed: uyunisal, the economic rescue of Bolivia is incomplete. The 4,000-square-
Mile Salt apartments is one of the country\'s most spectacular landscapes, and by exploiting the resources below it, it is almost certain that it will be changed, if not irreparable damage.
So Garcia Linera spoke of this with even sincere comfort.
He leaned very close and asked, \"Have you been to Salar de Uyuni in Uyuni ? \"?
When I replied that I was going to be there soon, the vice president removed his mint flavor and seemed to be filled with nostalgia.
When you go to Salar, he tells me to go there one night.
Lay a blanket in the center of Salar.
Open some music.
He is smiling now, but it is very important: Pink Floyd.
Open Pink Floyd
Staring at the sky.
The vice president then waved and said the rest would become obvious.
A full-day drive from the world\'s tallest capital to the world\'s largest salt apartment offers a roadside tour of the poorest countries in South America.
The road, which has been blocked from the center of La Paz by cars and political demonstrations, extends to the work of Alto
A class stronghold of Aymara, Bolivia\'s second largest indigenous group, from immigrants in the highlands of the Andes.
For the next seven hours, the route steadily went down through the village
The thief was tied to the trees of the warning, and passed through the city of orro until, at about 12,000 feet metres, it was leveled into a bush that was almost empty, occasionally animated by camels and their relatives, vikonia.
Later in the afternoon, the faint light of the salt beach yawned on the plain.
I arrived at Salar, a salt apartment in Spanish before sunset.
I traveled about a mile along its smooth and hard surface until it was in the middle --of-
It becomes obvious now.
I walked out of the SUV and went into a biting chill and sadly came to the conclusion that there would be no blankets under the stars, accompanied by a daze Pinke Floyd soundtrack.
Nevertheless, the sight is still an illusion: the bleached terrain of miles, ruthlessly leveled, divided into blurry, trapezoid shapes like a crazy giant board, the cloudless blue sky and the Redwood Andes peaks in the distance perfectly set off its starry sky.
Motorbikes and 4 x 4S fur legs pass through the road-free surface with unknown destination.
There are lonely people everywhere, as if they were in the folly of post-revelation, staring at what the vice president of Bolivia called the infinite table of Snow White.
Somewhere invisible to the infinite edge, the bulldozer is ploughing a long and precise evaporation pool in Sarari, as if creating a grid of huge pools.
The bulldozers will move in this way soon and no one can say for sure.
This is what we know.
First of all, there is another miracle under the world\'s largest salt Beach: one of the world\'s largest lithium deposits, which may account for 17% of the Earth\'s total.
Second, by exploiting its lithium reserves, the government of Bolivia has envisioned a road out of a dead end where 40% of people live in povertyde-
Unfortunate bag
Third, this path through essentially the original uyunisala is also completely unknown, and it is a doubtful familiarity for the Bolivian people living in a country full of pillage loopholes and deception aspirations
Bolivia today is still bound by the past.
The country\'s first emala president, Evo Morales, came to power in 2006, quoting in his recent inaugural address \"we have suffered for years\" as a result of Spanish colonialism, it\'s a brutal slavery and a cultural expulsion rule, though, that has
Since then, its reinvention has been hampered by geographical location and poor governance.
In 1905, Bolivia abandoned its coastline in the Pacific Ocean after losing war with Chile, and its economic prospects were affected.
While economic growth in neighboring Brazil and Argentina has been slow, Bolivia has experienced decades of military coups and corruption.
The two major indigenous inhabitants of kachuea and emala are still relegated to lower levels.
The caste status of the ruling elite of European descent.
All in all, Bolivia has always been a self-declining country.
Respect, potential hostilities, no sense of common national destiny.
At the same time, its economic history is also infinitely prosperous. and-bust cycles.
While this is common in countries dependent on natural resources, some Latin American countries, such as Chile, have managed them well.
In contrast, the government of Bolivia often signs mineral rights to foreign companies for quick but short profits.
As the vice president told me, in our history, we have not created a culture that combines our original assets with intelligent thinking.
This has created a country rich in natural resources and very poor in society.
In Latin American countries, Bolivia remains curiously ambiguous, and its history is neither iconic nor stable.
The cameo role it plays in Buch Cassidy and Sundance children can be seen as half of itanonymity.
In this classic film, Bolivia is the last refuge for two American bank robbers.
The Hollywood-beautified lawless man symbolizes Bolivia\'s less romantic thing, that is, greengus from rich countries ruthlessly plundered its resources. A bullet-
It is said that the two-man robbed train with holes is a special attraction in Pulacayo, which used to be a bustling mining town.
Today, praka is a ghost city.
The magnificent residence of German mining baron Moritz Hodgson is now a museum that is rarely visited, showing vintage photos of the difficulties his workers have endured, many of whom are women and children
Documents found recently show that Hochschild helped thousands of Jews leave Nazi Germany and resettle in Bolivia.
As Oscar balavian Chavez, a Bolivian geologists, has observed dryly, hochesh, in addition to the Bolivian, is the Schindler of Bolivia.
In 1959, the government shut down the mine in prakaya, causing the miners to lose their jobs.
The demise of the town is doomed to the fate of Uyuni, a mining distribution center 12 miles away.
But one day in the 1980 s, when looking for a tourist destination to compete with Lake Titicaca, a La Paz tour operator named Juan quisada Valda looked
Prior to this, the Bolivian thought that the salt field was only a geographical anomaly.
According to a local myth, Salar is formed by breast milk and salty tears from Tunupa, a volcano that cried when her two daughters were kidnapped.
But while tuupa and the other mountains around it are respected in Aboriginal knowledge, the Salars have never had a cultural significance, said Mayor uyunio Mendoza.
People are worried that they may get lost and die of thirst if they walk on it, or that their camels will damage their hoofs on salt.
When Quesada saw Salar, he experienced a revelation, and his daughter Lucy said, \"you can find the lake anywhere.
But no salt fields like this can be found anywhere else in the world.
He knows this place can be sold.
Quesada, a trained architect, began building the first of several hotels in Colchani, a village on the eastern edge of Salar, almost entirely built with salt.
Adventurous foreigners began to bask in the sun in the vast pale desert.
Weddings, yoga tutorials, and drag-and-drop competitions will eventually be staged on them.
Nowadays, the salt hotel is often full, and Uyuni has become a pizzeria with a little belly --
Full of bustling University resortsAge backpackers.
90% of our economy may be tourism, Mendoza said.
All this means that in Bolivia\'s long and painful history of economic disappointment, Sal offers a happy and modest exception.
But now the future of Bolivia is in the form of lithium.
Powered today by ahead lithium\'s unique technology for charging Chemical properties
It is the lightest of all metals, heat resistant, able to store a lot of energy in the battery
Driving the global upsurge of extracting hard currency from hard currency
Rock minerals and British.
It is estimated that lithium reserves around the world are 53 million metric tons.
Australia is currently leading the way in mining, but South America is the continent with the most valuable resources.
4 The number of lithium resources estimated in one country is measured in millions of metric tons of lithium.
2 How much lithium was extracted from mining production in 2017.
Each square is equal to thousands of metric tons. Argentina9. 85.
7Bolivia9Chile8. 414. 2China76.
8 America 6
8. 0alia540canada1.
9 serbia1 carbonate a1 carbonate ExportsLithium is usually refined into this key item.
The export volume in 2017 was thousand metric tons.
31813 japanbelgiumgermanyrussianorthamericaunitedstatesasiaeuropechinasouthkoreaafricasouthamericaaustraliaboliviachileargentinathe U. S.
Many products are manufactured from imported lithium, but not the main source of resources.
Deposition of lithium
American rock minerals Europe.
South American countries have the world\'s sixth largest lithium resource, but production has not yet reached commercial scale.
How to extract lithium from any kind of hard lithium
Rock minerals or British.
It is faster to process lithium from hard rock, but expensive;
It\'s usually cheaper to process it from brines, but it takes longer. Hard-
Rock ore-
It contains minerals such as lithium, which can be rough-
Granular, volcanic rock. 1Lithium-
The mine is mined in an underground or surface mine.
Hard OreMineThe-
Rock ore is broken and Lithium minerals are separated into concentrate.
The physical separation process of mineral processing including acid leaching and roasting produces lithium-Based on chemicals.
3 Production time: in less than a month, different concentrations of dissolved lithium, called Continental brine, were found in the underground brine solution.
Drill a well in an underground reservoir
Salt water on the surface.
Water evaporates salt water to move through a series of surface pools to concentrate lithium and remove impurities.
2 unused water evaporated brine 3 concentrated brine is treated to produce lithium chemicals that are filtered out and dried.
Production time: 8 to 18 months
Ceramics, glass and lubricants are also increasingly used for high
Rechargeable battery with capacity.
Development of hybrid and electric vehicles
Demand for cars has increased.
Total output in 2017, from hard lithium production
Rock mineral production exceeds salt water production, mainly because Australia\'s production has tripled.
The concentration of Chemicals89 % is 11% low, and the industrial grade lithium battery can enhance products such as ceramics and glass.
Lithium compounds can be hard from salt water-rock minerals. BrinesHard-
Rock minerals 33% 67% Other 9% ceramic and glass 27% Batteries46 % polymerization production 5% air treatment 2% casting protective slag powder 4% lubricating oil 7% production ramp increased the high demand for lithium compounds is estimated, global mining production exceeded consumption in 2017.
The world\'s lithium production is 70 metric tons, excluding the United States. S.
35 It is estimated that 020062011 salt water is consumed. HARD ROCKHard-
Rock minerals were the main source of lithium, and until the 1990 s, the cheap lithium carbonate source brines surpassed them.
Mining thousands of metric tons of lithium
Ion batteriesbrine20 Chile has started to reduce costs from brines10 * unknonhard rock019301984 196012016 better progress in battery engineering and manufacturing
Ion batteries have been commercially available since 1991. Lithium-
Cost per kilowatt ion battery
Watt-hour energy density-
$3 per kilogram hour, 000300CostDensity1, 5001500019902000 \'2015\' * \"unknown\" includes lithium data from the United StatesS. (1936-
1998) and China (2000-
2017) This is not hard to disclose-
Source of rock and salt water.
The lithium content measured is metric tons (2,205 pounds metric tons ).
Manuel Canales and Matthew W.
Staff of CHwastyk, NGm; Amanda Hobbs;
Mr. Ronald panagua.
Source: Brian jacukula, USAS.
Geological Survey; Brent A.
Elliott andRahul Wilma, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas; Brine vs.
Hard stone map: S. H.
More and others, minerals12 (Updated using references referenced in the article );
Battery chart: adapted without mrsbullein40 (2015) permission to power today\'s technology to charge the unique chemical properties of ahead lithium
It is the lightest of all metals, heat resistant, able to store a lot of energy in the battery
Driving the global upsurge of extracting hard currency from hard currency
Rock minerals and British.
43 where is it, where does it get the lithium resources from, mining the production of lithium carbonate. 8 How much lithium was extracted in 2017.
Each square is equal to thousands of metric tons.
Lithium is often refined into this key commodity.
The export volume in 2017 was thousand metric tons.
The world\'s lithium reserves are estimated at 53 million metric tons.
Australia is currently leading the way in mining, but South America is the continent with the most valuable resources.
It is estimated that the amount of lithium in a country is measured by millions of metric tons.
There are 21318 deposits of lithium in the United States. S.
Many products are manufactured from imported lithium, but not the main source of resources.
Bolivia has the sixth largest lithium resource in the world, but its production has not yet reached commercial scale. 6. 8BrineHard-
rock mineral71.
91 belgiumgermanyeurope0. 80.
4RussiaCzechiaSpain0.
1canada1serbiaporugal9asiaunitedstates0.
8NorthAmericaJAPANChina0. 2SOUTHKOREA6. 89. 80.
2MexicoMaliAFRICA58. 41Dem. Rep. of theCongo0. 2Brazil0.
Lithium exports in Australia-
Rich in minerals.
SouthAmerica0.
5ZimbabweArgentina400. 85. 7Chile14.
2 How to extract lithium from any hard lithium
Rock minerals or British.
It is faster to process lithium from hard rock, but expensive;
It\'s usually cheaper to process it from brines, but it takes longer. Hard-
Rock ore-
It contains minerals such as lithium, which can be rough-
Granular, volcanic rock.
Mineral concentration production Time: below the physical separation chemical treatment 1 lithium-
Mining under mine
Pit on the ground or ground. The hard-
Rock ore crushed and lithium mineral separated
Focus.
Processing including acid leaching and roasting produces lithium-Based on chemicals.
23 different concentrations of dissolved lithium, called Continental brine, were found in an underground brine solution.
Production time: 8 to 18 months water evaporation rock chemical reaction brine without chemical treatment drill into underground reservoir pump lithium-
Salt water on the surface.
Move the brine through a series of surface pools to concentrate lithium and remove impurities.
The concentrated brine is treated to produce lithium chemicals that are filtered out and dried.
23 The concentration of 11% Lithium is used for lithium at a lower technical level to strengthen products such as ceramics and glass. Key to heat-
Ceramics, glass and lubricants are also increasingly used for high
Rechargeable battery with capacity.
Development of hybrid and electric vehicles
Demand for cars has increased.
Hard ceramic and glass 27%
Rock mineral production in 2017, hard lithium production
Rock mineral production exceeds salt water production, mainly because Australia\'s production has tripled.
67% Batteries46 % air treatment 2% lubricating oil 7% cast protection slag powder 4% Brines33 % Other 9% chemicals 89% lithium compounds can be removed from salt water and hard-rock minerals.
Yield of polymer 5%
Better hard rock
Rock minerals are the main source of rock debris, and until the 1990 s, the cheap lithium carbonate source brines surpassed them.
It is estimated that due to the high demand for lithium compounds, global mining production exceeded consumption in 2017.
Advances in engineering and manufacturing reduce costs and increase the energy density of lithium
Ion batteries have been commercially available since 1991.
There are thousands of metric tons of lithium in the world.
First commercial lithium-ion battery production-
Cost per kilowatt ion battery
Watt-hour energy density-
70 brine20 Chile began to produce lithium from brines, the cost does not include the United StatesS.
3510Density1 500150 * unknownestimateshard rockconsumption00001984199120162006201120171930199020002015 â x80 wastes * \"unknown\" including lithium battery data from American. S. (1936-
1998) and China (2000-
2017) This is not hard to disclose-
Source of rock and salt water.
The lithium content measured is metric tons (2,205 pounds metric tons ).
Manuel Canales and Matthew W.
Staff of CHwastyk, NGm; Amanda Hobbs;
Mr. Ronald panagua.
Source: Brian jacukula, USAS.
Geological Survey; Brent A.
Elliott andRahul Wilma, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas; Brine vs.
Hard stone map: S. H.
More and others, minerals12 (Updated using references referenced in the article );
Battery chart: Based on mrsbulletin40 (2015) licensing adaptation, what gold means for the early days, what oil means for the last century, lithium may disappear in the next few years.
For a long time, it has been used in drug treatment for bipolar diseases, as well as various items such as ceramics and nuclear weapons, and has become an important part of batteries in computers, mobile phones and other electronic devices.
In 2017, the annual consumption of lithium in the global market was about 40,000 metric tons (1 metric ton was 2,205 pounds tons), an annual increase of about 10% since 2015.
Meanwhile, the price of lithium has almost tripled from 2015 to last year, which clearly reflects the pace of demand growth.
As electric vehicles are becoming more popular, this may intensify.
According to Goldman Sachs, a version of the Tesla Model S runs on a battery pack containing about 140 pounds of lithium compounds, equivalent to whats in 10,000 phones.
The investment company also predicted that
Car sales have replaced a portion of all vehicles sold and demand for lithium has increased by 70,000 metric tons per year.
Given that France and the UK have announced that they will ban the sale of gasoline or diesel cars by 2040, it is clear that a country rich in lithium will never need to worry about poverty. Though lithium-
Every continent has mining operations except Antarctica, up to three
4 of the known lithium reserves are located in the Plateau-
Plateau Puna, 1,100mile-
A long extension of the Andes.
Salt deposits are concentrated in Chile, Argentina and Bolivia, known as the \"Lithium Triangle \".
Chile has produced lithium from salt water since the 1980 century, and its Salar de Atacama is now a major source of chemicals in Latin America.
The Chilean government has always been the most enthusiastic about foreign investors, and its mining industry, as the world\'s largest exporter of copper, has rich experience.
In the 1990 s, Argentina also began to extract lithium from salt water and extract its salt.
Bolivia\'s lithium reserves match Chile\'s high-yield lithium reserves in Atacama Salar, but until recently their potential has not been developed.
They have always had a public culture in Argentina and Chile --
Ballivian says he is one of the first geologists to study Sarah\'s lithium potential, in his 1980 s.
The government does not want to accept private investment here.
Hostile to capitalism.
The election of Morales was symbolic to the indigenous population of emala.
But the remarks and actions of the new president have also played a role in rejecting foreign investment.
Morales quickly nationalized the oil industry and took steps to nationalize some of its mining operations.
In 2008, two years after their election, Morales and Garcia Linera, like the former government, turned their attention to the lithium reserves of uyunisala.
Garcia Linera says no lithium has ever been produced by other governments.
What they want to do is replicate the whole plan of the colonial economy.
The people of Bolivia do not want this.
So we start from scratch.
From the very beginning, the principle of operation of the new government is \"Estatal 100% Estatal!
Fully controlled by the Bolivian state.
We have decided that we in Bolivia will occupy Sal, invent our own lithium extraction methods, and then work with foreign companies that can bring us a global market.
 x80 waste the x80 x9c 100% of solidarity.
When President Aymara uttered the slogan, it had more meaning.
It happened that Aimara made up a large part of the population around Sal.
The announcement that Yantian will be the center of Bolivia\'s economic revolution is to show that employment and getting out of trouble will eventually come to the indigenous people of the country.
Garcia rinla boldly promised that lithium in Bolivia would be the fuel to feed the world.
He vowed to me that at 2030 the country\'s economy would be the same as that of Argentina and Chile.
Morales confidently predicts that Bolivia will produce lithium batteries by 2010 and electric vehicles by 2015.
These estimates have proved far from enough.
With the learning of Morales and Garcia linella, lithium mining is an expensive and complex process that requires a lot of capital expenditure and technical complexity.
For a developing country like Bolivia, a single shot is never an option.
At the same time, attracting a foreign company willing to cede control to the country is a challenge for any country, especially those with a tendency to nationalize.
You will certainly understand that most industries want to take advantage of Salar, and García Linera insists that no, Salar must be fully controlled by Bolivian technicians.
This creates some tension.
Nevertheless, the Morales government believes that the commitment of Salar de Uyuni\'s foreign exchange reserves will dispel any doubts and says that Bolivia will have a foreign partner to help industry --
Lithium will be produced in scale by 2013.
This has also proved to be a rash prediction. U. S.
Companies opt out.
The same is true of a top Korean company.
Bolivia did not find a partner until 2018: it is reported that it will invest $1 in ACI Systems Alemania, a German company.
3 billion in exchange for a 49% stake in the joint venture.
The most difficult obstacle facing Bolivia is the scientific problem.
Battery production-
Sodium chloride, potassium chloride and magnesium chloride were separated from salt water.
It is particularly expensive to remove the last pollutant.
In lower altitudes in Argentina and Chile, Salar receives a lot more rain than its peers, which may slow the evaporation process.
The magnesium content of lithium deposits is also high.
Although the proportion of magnesium in Chile is 5 to 1, the proportion of magnesium in uyouni is 21 to 1.
Miguel Para, a chemical engineer in Bolivia, said the concentration was four times the concentration.
So it\'s a simpler operation for them.
For us, the separation of magnesium from lithium is the biggest challenge.
One morning I met Parra at the bolivia s Llipi lithium pilot plant, which is located on the front camel ranch at the end of a long dirt road.
Shortly after the start of the project in November 2008, Parra has been the director of plant operations.
Bad wind and heavy rainfall have enabled engineers to build 10-
The mile causeway connecting the factory and the salt field for the extraction of lithium.
In addition to a small pilot plant that produces batteries in the mining town of portosi, millions-
The dollar Llipi plant, which started producing lithium in January 2013, is all that the Morales government has to show for a decade --
Long-term pursuit of lithium
Prosperity.
A small state.
Run compound has an all-
The Bolivian workforce of about 250 employees, most of which are not from the nearby village of emala, but from La Paz or Potosi.
They wear red jumpsuit and live next to the factory in the prefabricated house.
Victor Ugarte, director of quality control, took me through the fenced and protected factory.
The tour took only a few minutes.
The process begins when workers drill holes on hard surfaces until they reach salt water.
The brine is then transported through a pipeline to a pool that is condensed by evaporation and a chemical that causes Lithium sulfate crystals is added.
The dissolved Lithium sulfate is then transported across the causeway to three-
Story plants at the top.
First mix the liquid with the lime that came in from the Potosi truck for an hour.
Ugarte told me that this is the most difficult part of our extraction of magnesium so that we can reach the level of purity we need.
After the magnesium compound is removed as a gray paste, the remaining liquid is transferred to the second floor where calcium carbonate is filtered out.
Add the chemical to the cooled liquid to produce lithium carbonate, which is dried for two hours and loaded in a white bag labeled \"lithium carbonate.
About 20% drive 190 miles to the Poto battery plant.
The rest are sold to companies.
When I visited, Ugarte told me that we started producing about two tons per month.
Up to five tons now.
Factory officials say they have produced 30 tons a month since then.
) I asked the director of quality control what was the final production target for Llipi plant.
The industrial level will reach 15,000 tons per year, he said.
I am trying to imagine that in the next five years or so, this humble little facility has accelerated to achieve this ambitious goal while maintaining 99.
5% purity, battery industry standard-grade lithium.
Looking around, I thought of other issues as well.
For example: how is Bolivia going to deal with these huge gray magnesium waste?
The government pointed out that magnesium chloride can be used to remove ice on roads, but it is a credit to imagine so much use.
Therefore, lime is the most economical and feasible method to separate magnesium from lithium.
The government of Bolivia claims that it has a unique treatment that can reduce residual lime waste.
But how much is speculative.
According to Bolivian geologists Juan Benavides, the environmental impacts in Chile and Argentina are low.
But we can\'t infer that because the magnesium content in lithium in Bolivia is very high.
All we know is that lime will be used in large quantities, and lithium regulations and laws in Argentina and Chile are stricter than those in Bolivia.
García Linera told me that we are very proud of the precautions we take to reduce any impact.
In fact, they spent a lot of money on us.
But it is almost impossible to assess how the industrial version of its lithium facility will change uyunisala.
One of the biggest problems is how much water is needed to extract lithium.
Two Rivers, Colorado Rio and Rio dalipez, flow into the salt flats.
The former is thin enough to become a stream;
The latter is shallow enough to wade through.
This is crucial for local quinoa growers, who are the second-largest supplier of quinoa after Peru.
Although the government of Bolivia insists that 90% of the water it uses will come from salt water rather than underground reservoirs, some experts are skeptical that groundwater supply will not be affected.
Year after year, water will be the main resource needed, says Ballivian.
They need more than any other mine in Bolivia.
Finally, it is still the most unspoiled surface of Salar itself.
Despite being revered by human tourists, because it seems to be infinite Osterland, it is rarely interrupted by the patch of cactus --
The covered islands, such as mountains, are also breeding grounds for Chilean flamingos.
García Linera said that our factory is away from these shelters, which shows our commitment to the environment.
Dozens of evaporation pools, about 10 football fields long, leveled the salt marsh away from places where tourists may camp on a star-lit night with blankets and mobile phones.
But these vague dents are meant to accommodate a fraction of what is now a yearly exploitation of Sarah in Bolivia.
In addition, as deputy minister of energy, Luis Alberto ekazau Alvarado has indicated to me that our vision is that it is a long-term one. term project.
So you have to mix the poor and rich salt water in order to develop the whole Sarah.
So the government will always do exercises elsewhere? âx80x9d I asked.
\"Yes, yes,\" said ecaza, nodding his head strongly. âx80x9cAlways.
As I head to dusty villages near Salar de uyuniu colcolchani, Tahua, Chiltaico, llica, there are occasional signs of supporting Morales
But on the issue of lithium brain children in Morales, residents responded with exhaustion of suspicion and sometimes with concern.
Many Aymara people in the area work as Salos, collecting salt and selling it to processing plants.
A salt farmer named Hugo Flores sat in half of him.
Tell me that the rusty pickup did not receive any information from the government.
We don\'t even know what lithium is, what its benefits are, and what its effects are.
Tahua, a member of parliament named Cipriana Callpa Díaz, said more sharply that no one in the city is engaged in lithium projects.
We think the staff here will work and the salary will be high.
Very disappointing.
When I conveyed this sentiment to Parra, the director of the Llipi plant shrugged helplessly, acknowledging that unskilled workers in lithium processing had little work.
He said he advised the children to go to the university to get their degrees back.
Perhaps the strongest complaint was expressed by Ricardo aguiré Tikona, president of the Council of llica, capital of Daniel Campos Province.
Almost all of the province is in the province.
We know that there will be millions once the factory is fully up and running-
One afternoon, he said in a messy office: \"The dollar business . \".
It is doubtful whether we will get anything.
Those who should benefit in the first place are those who are producing what is going on, not just cash benefits.
There should be a college of chemistry or a scholarship so young people can have a future.
We have been asking for this for three years.
Now, we are going to invite the audience with the president.
He has been here for a long time.
Aguire measured his next sentence carefully.
Bolivia is patient, he said.
However, measures will be taken to listen if necessary.
His statement does not need to be detailed in Bolivia.
In 1946, the public felt that the government had no patience with President gualbeto villarauer, who initiated labor reforms but put in place repressive measures when miners made more demands
The angry Bolivian attacked the palace of Villaro and killed him.
They tied his body to a lamppost in murillo Square, which is close to the palace, where I met with the vice president to discuss the latest plans to reform the Bolivian economy.
When I left Llica in the SUV and again passed through Salar\'s colorless daydream, I thought of the dark reminder of the past, a simple illusion that can last forever, but not actually.
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