history of the rechargeable battery
So how does the battery evolve and where will it go?
Let\'s take a look at its history and future.
The lead-acid battery, invented by Gaston Plante, dates back to 1859 at the earliest.
The acid model is the first one that can be charged by putting the current back into the battery.
The working principle of acid battery is to have lead anode and cathode in sulfuric acid bath.
This causes a reaction to release electrons and produce lead sulfate.
Regarding the lead-acid battery, it is interesting that the reaction can be reversed by reverse current, essentially charging the battery.
Nowadays, lead-acid batteries are still used on cars and motorcycles, but because they have a relatively low amount of charge compared to the weight, not to mention harmful chemicals, for mobile devices, lead-acid batteries are not practical.
NiCdNickel up-cadmium (
Also known as NiCd or NiCad)
It is the first rechargeable battery for a variety of devices, from remote control cars to cordless phones and early phones.
Waldemar Jungner was invented in 1899. the battery uses electrodes made of nickel and cadmium in a hyrdoxide potassium alkaline bath. Nickel-
The terminal voltage of cadmium is about 1.
Charging cycle of 2 V and 2,000 or so, but it has several disadvantages.
The battery is poisonous (due to cadmium)
And suffered a notorious memory effect (
If you want technology, or voltage suppression)
-If the NiCd battery is repeatedly charged before it is completely exhausted, its voltage and capacity will be reduced.
While the NiCd battery can be restored to almost full capacity and voltage with several full discharges and charges, this is too cumbersome for most users.
Thanks to the next battery technology, NiCd is not common now.
Nimney\'s secret-metal Hydride (NiMH)
For most electronic devices using AA-the battery has basically replaced NiCd as the default batteryor AAA-sized battery.
NiMH was invented in 1967, using complex alloys of various metals and nickel
Hydrogen oxidation electrode in potassium hydroxide alkaline bath.
NiMH batteries do less damage to the environment than NiCd.
Contrary to what is generally believed, NiMH batteries also have memory effects, although not once fully discharged for a while to avoid the magnitude of the voltage suppression effect.
In 2005, Japanese electronics company Sanyo\'s Eneloop battery made a big breakthrough, a NiMH battery with a very low discharge rate.
Even after a year, the company claims, the battery will remain as high as 70% to 85%. The Eneloop (
And similar batteries)
This is achieved by having a more efficient separator that separates the two electrodes to slow the discharge.
It is precisely because of these separators that the capacity of the Eneloop battery is slightly lower than that of the normal NiMH battery-the separator takes up the space that could have been used for chemicals to maintain more charging.
In later batteries, the company used a thinner separator made of more advanced materials to increase the capacity of the battery.
Panasonic acquired Sanyo in 2009 and now sells Eneloop batteries under the Panasonic brand.
Although the research on lithium batteries began as early as 1912, this is the first rechargeable lithium battery
Ion batteries were manufactured only in 1985 and commercialized in 1991. Lithium-
Ion batteries use a complex mixture of materials-the cathode is composed of lithium molecules trapped in other compounds, while the anode is usually a mixture of graphite or carbon and other compounds.
In fact, the chemical reaction is diverse, and the anode, cathode and electrolyte solutions use a mixture of lithium and other chemicals to provide different effects-more charge, more density, more stable or resistant to overheating.
Batteries are widely used in today\'s mobile devices because they can maintain a higher charge and the discharge rate between only 1 is very low.
5% and 2% per month.
The average charging cycle of lithium batteries is about 1,000 times.
The types of lithium polymers are the same, but the electrolyte is a solid polymer composite with laminated electrodes and separators, allowing manufacturers, especially telephone manufacturers, to create a flexible battery, it can be shaped according to the limited internal space of the smartphone. Lithium-
The biggest drawback of the ion batteries is that they will be overcharged, which may result in lithium-
The ion battery to burn is usually very spectacular (
If very dangerous)results.
In fact, lithium
Ion batteries can burn easily, even short
Connecting them by connecting two terminals can cause them to catch fire and explode.
Most manufacturers prevent this by recessed the terminals, so it is not possible for them to accidentally short-circuit.
The future is wireless, and the ongoing demand for more capacity and faster charging accelerates the study of many battery types.
Some of the technologies currently being studied are higher efficiency \"super capacitors\" with a charging speed of 50 times faster than the current battery.
Another possible battery technology is Na-
It\'s basically an ion of sodium.
Ion or salt-it can maintain as much power as a lithium battery, but it can last almost twice as long as it can handle 2,000 charging cycles.
Scientists at MIT and Samsung are currently working on state batteries, which have increased power density by 20% to 30% compared to lithium
Ions, which can be charged thousands of times before it is degraded.
In addition to battery technology, scientists are also working on more convenient ways to charge mobile devices.
One of the technologies that are now available but not yet popular is wireless charging.
Wireless charging technology basically has two kinds of induction charging and magnetic resonance charging.
Both techniques use the same principle-the current flows through tightly wound wires that produce a magnetic field that passes the voltage to nearby objects.
Wireless charging is inherently less efficient than wired charging.
In both technologies, inductive charging is a more efficient method, but can only work in a very close range, usually less than 1. 5in.
Intel presented Rezence Wireless charging technology for magnetic resonance charging at its annual IDF meeting, and even if the charger and device are a few inches apart, magnetic resonance charging works fine, but not as effective as inductive charging.
There are currently two competing standards-the Qi standard advocated by the Wireless Power Alliance and the PMA standard led by the aviation fuel alliance (
Consists of two previously competitive wireless standards).
While everyone wants the two companies to merge, companies like Samsung have begun to support both wireless standards.